The Fort Brooke Record
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|The "Fort Brooke Record" (FBR) is the monthly newsletter of the Capt. John T. Lesley Camp 1282, Inc, a Camp of the Florida Division, SCV and of the International Sons of Confederate Veterans. The FBR is provided free of charge to members of the Camp. Editorial comments in this publication are the expressed opinion of the editorial writer and not of the Camp. Paid advertisements can in no way be considered an endorsement by this camp. Locally, for inquiries and information on coming to events, the camp maintains a full-time access phone at (813) 661-7045.|
This month we are fortunate to have as our featured speaker Mr. Frank Jakes, an attorney who for 5 years represented young Wayne Denno in his legal action against the School Board of Volusia County and two assistant principals.
In 1995, Mr. Jakes was approached by Marion Lambert of Preserving Our Heritage, Inc. with the initial information of the suspension of then 16 year old Wayne Denno. The circumstances were that Wayne was suspended for 9 days, recommended for expulsion and turned over to the State Juvenile Justice System for criminal prosecution all emanating from his possession of a 4 inch Confederate Flag on the property of Pine Ridge High School.
What captivated our interest was the pure heritage nature of the case. Wayne was a Civil War Confederate artillery reenactor and his interest was purely of that vein. He even described, to the press, the Confederate Battle Flag as being the flag of Robert E. Lee and the Army of Northern Virginia. Here was a case where the motives of this Southern boy were stainless and the actions of the school authorities were, in every sense, vindictive.
So Frank took the case and the story which began five years ago wound itself through the trappings of the federal court system until very recently. In October 2000 the US Supreme Court failed to find this case compelling enough (to our great dismay) to grant Frank Jakes and Wayne Dennos request for a hearing before that body. In so doing, the high court let stand a convoluted decision (2-1 against Denno) by the 11th District court in Atlanta. By convoluted is meant that the final decision of the 11th District came after they vacated a very positive decision (2-1 for Denno) only months earlier by the same 11th District court giving Denno a victory. This action by the 11th District was unprecedented. One judge literally jumped sides. He had voted one way and then he totally changed his opinion and voted the other.
This was the first civil rights case which Mr. Jakes had ever been involved with. His usual practice, as a trial lawyer, concerns issues involving intellectual property litigation. But his appreciation of the 1st Amendment (freedom of speech) argument based upon the rightful legitimacy of the Confederate Battle Flag as a symbol of Southern pride put him squarely in the corner with Wayne Denno.
A part from the essence of this case there are also other considerations to appreciate. Frank is a long standing Legionnaire in the Lesley Camp and he is married to a premier Southern Belle, Shelly Schabacher. Shelly, a member of Tampa Chapter 113, United Daughters of the Confederacy, is a ggranddaughter of Captain Charles Meredith McRae of the 1st Alabama Volunteer Infantry, CSA. (As a note, Captain McRae was captured three times, was traded once, escaped once and ended the War for Southern Independence in a Yankee prison camp.)
On all of these matters regarding Denno, Mr. Jakes will speak. But the import of his talk will be a little broader. The title of the talk will be Free Speech, Public School Students & The Confederate Battle Flag. So you can see, the thrust of the program will raise the question of ultimate vindication of our Southern symbols within our society. After the legal setback in the Denno case, we have to ask ourselves: Is there hope through the courts? and Are there any alternatives to the courts? Also of interest to all of us will be simply Are there any plans to pursue this 1st Amendment issue in the Government schools, via the courts?
See you on Tuesday, the 19th of December, as we meet at Buddy Freddys in Brandon. It certainly should be an interesting program. See you there.
Not As Planned
But the November Meeting was Great
The regular meeting of the Lesley Camp was held as planned at the Buddy Freddys Restaurant in Brandon on Tuesday, November 21, 2000. The setting, the people, the food nothing seemed out of ordinary until it came time for the program. Our newsletter editor, Rich Warner, was to give the program on the History of the Confederate Submarine CSS Hunley. Everything looked perfect for a great evening.
But Rich Warner was not there and was not to be found. He had called earlier in the day and relayed the distressing news that his plane had suffered mechanical problems and was parked on the ground in Birmingham, Alabama. He is a pilot for Delta Airlines. Ultimately distressing was his frustration in trying to get another flight back to Tampa in time for the meeting. The problem seemed so simple to solve! Just hop a flight back to Tampa. But nothing worked! Every avenue was a dead end. Eventually, Rich was routed all over the South, in a circumventing manner, and late (very late) that evening he arrived in Little Rock, AR and did not arrive home until Wednesday..
In the meantime, we were about to have a meeting without a program. Never before had this occurred. Quartermaster Jake English was his usual exterior. That is, his unflappable polished exterior. But underneath (just below the surface) there was an element of the unknown.
While we were having our eats in came Mr. Michael Clarke. It just so happened that in the rear of his van he had many items both original and replica, which related to the Confederate soldier, his clothing and apparel. He agreed to give an impromptu presentation (sometimes called a program). In short, the evening was saved and saved in high style.
You see, Mike Clarke did a fabulous and wonderful job. He is a detailing expert on collecting and the thrust of his collecting energy is the War period with a focus on the Confederacy. We were all quite spellbound. Mike, our hat is off to you for standing in when you were so needed. And thanks for standing in, and in such a fine fashion.
Southern Society of Tampa Bay
On Friday, November 17, the Southern Society of Tampa Bay met for its third meeting of the year. Represented were the following organizations: Tampa Chapter 113, UDC; Mary Custis Lee Chapter 1451, UDC; Plant City Chapter 1931, UDC; and John T. Lesley Camp 1282, SCV. Not represented at this meeting was the following: Confederate Cantinieres Chapter 2405, UDC; Florida Division, SCV; Stonewall Jackson Camp 1381, SCV; Co K 7th Florida; and Co A Confederate States Marines, Pensacola. Individuals present at the meeting were the following: Jonothan Busch, Elaine McKendree, Ruth Byther, Lunelle Siegel, Bart Siegel, Jake English, Pam Steele, Bill Agatheas, James B. Hayward, Martha Sue Skinner, Richard Skinner, Diana W. Shuman, Gail Crosby, Rich Warner, and Marion Lambert.
The represented organizations shared with all present their respective plans for events coming up on their calendars. Also shared were projects planned or active projects of the various organizations. Of note were the following: Tampa Chapter 113 cleaning and on-going beautification project of the Confederate Monument, Robert E. Lee plaque renewal project, and the University of Tampa Confederate cannon project; Mary Custis Lee Chapter 1451 a tea planned for January and the potential sell off of a portion of its property on the Causeway in Clearwater; Plant City Chapter 1381 The Lee Jackson Dinner and Ball planned for January 27; John T. Lesley Camp 1282 will host the state Division SCV convention in Tampa during the month of May.
Of particular note was the offer of a web site for the Southern Society by Lunelle Siegel. The site will have links to the other various organizations which comprise the Society. Any organization not presently having a web site was offered by Lunelle a free web site for basic information and publicity. The central Society site will maintain a composite calendar for all of the various Southern Society of Tampa Bay organizations. The idea thus put on the table by Lunelle was very positively accepted and she was given hardy encouragement to proceed.
Also discussed was the status of the Julia I Dickinson Scholarship purportedly available to University of Tampa students of direct Confederate lineage. Seeing that no organizational member of the Society has a direct involvement or commitment in seeking the status and nature of the scholarships availability it was decided to ask a member of the University staff to attend the next meeting of the Society. On behalf of the Society, Pam Steele agreed to formally so make the invitation. Also Jonathan Busch, a freshman at UT, expressed an interest in the scholarship. He volunteered to inquire at the university concerning its availability for the purpose of applying for the Julia I Dickinson Scholarship. Jonathan is a member of the John T. Lesley Camp.
The next meeting of the Society is scheduled for 7 PM, Friday, January 12, in the Mafia Room at CDBs restaurant in downtown Tampa.
National headquarters SUVCW
General Order No. 14
1. General order No. 4 Series 1999-2000 was rescinded by General Order No. 13 Series 1999-2000. The following resolution represents the position by the national organization of the Sons of Union veterans of the Civil War as adopted on August 19th 2000 at the 119th national encampment held in Lansing, MI.
RESOLUTION OF SUPPORT
DISPLAY OF BATTLE FLAGS OF THE CONFEDERACY
119TH NATIONAL ENCAMPMENT OF THE
SONS OF UNION VETERANS OF THE CIVIL WAR
LANSING, MI AUGUST 19, 2000
A resolution in support of the display of the Confederate Battle Flag.
WHEREAS, we the members of the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War, condemn the use of the Confederate Battle Flag, as well as the flag of the United States, by any and all hate groups, and
WHEREAS, we the members of the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War support of flying of the Confederate Battle Flag as a historical piece of this nation's history, and
WHEREAS, we the members of the Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War oppose the removal of any Confederate monuments or markers to those gallant soldiers in the former Confederate States, and strongly opposes the removal of ANY reminders of this nation's bloodiest war on the grounds unit being "politically correct," and
WHEREAS, we, as the descendants of union soldiers and sailors who, as members of the Grand Army of the Republic, met in joint reunions with the Confederate Veterans under both flags and those bonds of fraternal friendship, pledge our support an admiration for those gallant soldiers and of their respective flags;
THEREFORE BE IT RESOLVED that we the members of the sons of union veterans of the Civil War in 119th annual national encampment hereby adopt this resolution. Dated in Lansing, MI, on this 19th day of August, in the year of our Lord 2000.
Just one More Member
With the battles we are fighting in the schools over the display of the Flag and our leaders on students shirts I have realized two things.
We need to be looking for these kids for a very good reason. They are the future of the SCV. Look around your camp. I'll bet the members aren't' getting any younger, I'm certainly not. If your own sons and grandsons aren't interested then find some who are!
''He who forgets his Ancestors is unworthy to be remembered by his Descendants''.
You are invited to a Confederate Luncheon
By the Mary Custis Lee Chapter
United Daughters of the Confederacy
at the Clearwater Beach Hotel
11:30, January 27th, 2001
Mrs. Jean Stuart
Our Christmas Parade
As always, the Plant City Christmas Parade was a success. It was on a cool early winter evening that the parade contingent stepped off to show our colours to the fine folks of Plant City. Even though our parade float was not available for this event, Mark Salters Confederate Tractor was the hit of the 7 PM, Friday, December 1 paraade. It was driven by Lynn Petty who was liberal with his manually operated electrical and pneumonic horn which played a great beginning stanza of Dixie.
Our unit was led by the famous Lesley Camp Colour Guard which was led by Colour Guard Captain Mike Herring. Carrying the colours were corporals Wayne Sweat, Wesley Sainz, and Daryl Witt. They were flanked by riflemen 2nd Sgt. Gregg Chappel and Corporal Leroy Rogers. The site of this unit marching, coming forward toward you (as a spectator) had to be just thrilling. This is where we see the folks rise and acknowledge the flag. (not to even mention whooping and hollering along with polite clapping) In every parade it never fails.
Following the tractor was our own commander, the one and only Jim Hayward, in his vintage 1925 Motel T One Ton Ford Truck. In the truck as a passenger was Provost Marshall Mark Miller. Cmdr. Hayward also had his 1921 Model T Touring car which was driven by Compatriot Richard Robison. His wife Donna was his passenger.
On a special note: Cmdr. Hayward had loaned his 1927 Model T Ford Touring car to past Commander Wayne Tyce of the Winfield Scott Whitehurst Camp #1 of the Sons of Union Veterans. Well, it seems that the high school colour guard unit which was designated to lead the parade (with the US flag) did not show up. The parade officials came looking for somebody, with the right flag, to go to the front of the parade and to lead off. The Sons of Union Veterans led the parade.
Doings in Tallahassee
Division Commander John Adams
travels for the good of the Cause
December 9, 2000
Thanks to Brigade Commander Bob May's efforts, he, Cathy and I attended the Special Legislative Session in Tallahassee as the guests of Democratic Representative Will Kendrick yesterday.
We were the ONLY non-legislators allowed onto the House floor prior to the session (security was tight beyond belief). Basically they went over some rules, and adjourned until Monday, when each side will have 2 1/2 hours to debate the situation. I figure our gallery tickets will be worth some money one day.
We got to meet a number of folks in the legislature, as Will spent nearly two hours introducing us around. I wore my "SCV General Staff" neck ribbon, and at least 50 folks (lots of reporters) stopped and asked who I was. (It pays to dress for success - nice suits get noticed). Cdr. May and I figured that if we has both worn "Gee-gaws" (neck ribbons) we could have gotten at least 100 new recruits for the SCV. I brought some Flags Across Florida flyers and passed them out. Too bad we didn't think to set up a recruiting booth...I guarantee we could have gotten a good-sized camp worth of new members if we had.
The only clear (immediate) winners in all this crap are members of the media. TV trucks and portable production studio Winnebagos stretched about 1/2 mile along Duval Street behind the Capitol. There were dozens of little tents (like you see at art shows) set up for each TV station, which served as makeshift studios for filming the TV commentators. Lots of filming was going on, and I met several of the personalities we have been seeing on TV daily these last few weeks. I bet there were two or three thousand 1/2" cables stretched all across the steps behind the Capitol building...I thought it would have been cute to cross-splice a few for kicks. You literally could NOT take a single step in the ACRE behind the Capitol without stepping on wires and cables.
One cameraman told me he had been there for a month, and was hoping to "take his big payday" home before Christmas. The reporters were awaiting the State Supreme Court "Indecision" that came yesterday afternoon. They were so bored, I actually caught a couple of them interviewing the kids who were delivering their lunches....I overheard one 17 yr. old delivery boy say "I wish this was all over, I am being run to death delivering all this food."
One bright spot was we got into the old Capitol building for a look around. It has the most beautiful stained-glass dome you ever saw. It has been restored to its circa 1845 appearance, and was all decorated for Christmas.
Gentlemen, icons of Florida's Confederate Heritage ABOUND. From the HUGE BRONZE "Great Seal of the Confederacy" in the atrium of the Capitol building (set with all other "ruling seals" in green marble), to the Confederate Flags in the Senate Chamber Seal, to the Confederate Monument in front of the old Capitol Building, to the beautiful 2nd National flying outside the new Capitol, we certainly have a strong presence. There is a large display in the old Capitol building covering the War Years, with a huge display featuring Robert E. Lee. There was NO ATTEMPT to hide any of this, that's for sure. But down the road, there will be PLENTY TO DEFEND!
It was pretty neat to see all the goings on, that to date have simply been images on TV. There were all sorts of folks wandering about the streets with signs "Jesus Saves", "Blues Brothers in 2004", and "Jimmy Buffett Wins", as well as lots of "Sore Loserman" folks. It seems that these events attracted just about every kook with a cause, from "Save the Chipmunks" to "Star Trekkies".
I was able to get some serious business done, and met with the Capitol Complex Building Manager who agreed to give me the old 2nd National Confederate Flags that fly on the grounds, in exchange for new ones from the Division. A fair trade, since I can raffle the old ones for $500 each, and the new ones only cost us $58. Our members will be pretty excited to get an official "Flown over the Capitol" flag, and accompanying certificate of authenticity. We can use the funds to restore the original flags in the Florida Museum of History (Tallahassee) or for whatever we think best. (They are 5' x 8' sewn nylon)
The Building Manager said he changes these flags about 5 times a year. He was VERY amenable to my proposal, and if the argument should ever come up, he can say the State isn't paying a dime for that flag, because it is being donated by the SCV
I am not trying to set a precedent here, but thought it would simply be good business for both of us, if there was something in it for him as well. He probably pays a couple hundred $$'s for the flags, since it is put out on competitive bid. I can buy them at wholesale (we are an Annin Distributor), and use the old ones to raise needed funds, via raffles, or as special awards. This is a win-win for both of us, because previously he was just tossing them in the trash.
Gentlemen, You can be proud of your State Capitol, and I encourage each of you to visit it when you can. The Division is becoming better known, thanks to Cdr. May, and we are working on details for our Reception for the Florida Legislature to be held sometime in Feb 2001. Rep Kendrick and others are assisting us in these efforts. This will be an excellent opportunity for the SCV to educate folks about our efforts and needs. From the WARM receptions I received yesterday, I think we will have a fruitful and lasting relationship with key lawmakers in the days to come.
In closing, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Cdr. Bob May, without whom, none of this would have been possible.
Hope you all are doing well...take care,
John W. Adams
Florida Division Commander
Flags Across Florida
By 1st Lt. Cmdr. Marion Lambert
This is an update for the the monument/flagpole to be dedicated April 7 at the White Springs exit (exit 84) located on I-75 six miles north of I-10. Remember that site will feature a 110 foot flagpole with a monument and all of the supporting landscaping.
By this time all full members of the Florida Division, SCV have received their Blockade Runner newsletter and the solicitation flyer for the site at White Springs. Those of you who were not on this mailing will, within the month, receive the same flyer.
Atlanta Presbyterians Pass Resolution
ATLANTA (AP) - The Presbytery of Greater Atlanta, the local representative body of the Presbyterian Church USA, has approved a resolution saying the Confederate symbol on Georgia's state flag "has served to pull the community apart."
Lawmakers changed the flag in 1956 to include the Confederate symbol in response to court-ordered integration in the South, the resolution said.
The Presbyterians joined the Atlanta diocese of the Episcopal Church and the Southeastern Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, which both recently called for a change in the flag.
The North Georgia Conference of the United Methodist Church, the denomination of Gov. Roy Barnes and Sen. Zell Miller, D-Ga., passed a
similar resolution in 1992.
© Copyright 2000 Associated Press
Presently the Email Directory for the camp has about 67 names and email addresses. To become really effective in this the information age we need to have many more. (Remember that the mailing list for the newsletter is near 300.)
If you are one of the people who have in the past received any emails addressed to Lesley Camp Members and Friends then you are on this camp email directory. If you have not then we need to add you and your email address to the directory.
To be added to this important list please send your request to be added to:
1st Lt. Commander Marion Lambert
If you would like to be added to the directory but do not wish that your email address be made known to others please so indicate in your request.
It was during December of 1965, while I was serving in the U.S. Air Force I happened to be on Guard Duty at night early in the morning between 0200 and 0500. I'll never forget the feeling of being so alone and away from my family and loved ones. But I did have the feeling too that I had a great responsibility of guarding my fellow airmen while they were catching some "shuteye". It was then when I got to thinking of all my ancestors who must have gone through the same thing as I did. I know that all veterans had that same responsibility that if need be we would have laid down our lives in the defense of our country. It was comforting to me knowing that the Lord was with me and that if anything would have happened, He would have taken care of me. And I'm here today to tell you that the reason I am telling you this today is that the Lord did take care of me during those years in the military and ever since.
I often wondered what all soldiers of all times would think about during the Christmas season when they too were away from loved ones fighting in a war somewhere. I imagine that these feelings are universal, no matter whose side they may be on.
It was during the Christmas season of 1862 that General John Morgan and a force of more than 3,000 Confederate Cavalry splashed across the Cumberland River near Carthage, TN, and thundered north into Union-held Kentucky. Their objective: the tiny railroad village of Muldraugh Hill, where they would destroy two principle railroad trestles on the Louisville & Nashville Railroad and thus disrupt the vital supply line supporting the U.S. Army of the Cumberland. When the two week dash behind enemy lines ended, Morgan would have captured almost 2,000 prisoners, burned the targeted trestles, lured 20,000 enemy troops from the front, and destroyed almost $2 million of Federal property.
It would become known as Morgan's Christmas Raid, and it was typical of the Confederate raider's bold, sometimes reckless forays behind enemy lines. Morgan was a superb cavalry officer and an expert leader. His raids had mixed results, but they undeniably disrupted Federal operations in Kentucky and Tennessee, and provided a much-needed boost to Southern morale in the Western Theater.
After the war, one of the soldiers that had gone along on that famous raid wrote about their experience. Dr. John Allen Wythe stated that " I never appreciated General Morgan's great ability as a soldier until I studied the official reports of the various Federal commanders who were trying to destroy him at this time. He was beset on all sides by detachments outnumbering him four to one. Nothing saved him but the genius of leadership, which divined the plans and movements of the enemy in time to elude him, and the devotion of the men who followed his fortunes and believed in him implicitly."
It was men such as these that served in these commands led by men like Morgan and Mosby and the two Thurmond brothers in Western Virginia. These men were known officially as Partisan Rangers, but the Federals had different names for them. But I suspect that that was because these men were really doing a lot of damage to them and they couldn't catch them. These men fought like the Indians of old, they didn't all stand in a line and march towards their enemy, they would hide behind trees and rocks and anything they could and then spring upon their enemy. It was a hit and run type of warfare which drove many a Yankee commander crazy trying to figure out how to catch them.
So I guess that during the Christmas season, whether it be The War Between the States or WWI or WWII or Vietnam or Bosnia, the soldier still goes through these times when he's confronted with the knowledge that it was nearly 2,000 years ago that Jesus was born in a manger and brought to us peace on Earth and good will towards all men. And then he wonders, why then am I here fighting a war. Well, as you know, the Devil is still around and as long as he is there will always be wars and rumors of wars. So then the soldier puts his faith and trust in his Lord and savior Jesus Christ because this is the season that we celebrate his birth to a virgin named Mary.
So it is on this wise that I wish you all an merry Christmas and may the Lord Jesus Christ bless our John T. Lesley Camp and bring some semblance of peace to our beleaguered nation. My prayer is that this nation will turn back to him.
In the service of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ
and the John T. Lesley Camp of the Sons of Confederate Veterans
Rev Calvin T. Martin
Uniforms of The Confederacy
By Michael Clark
Section A: Materials
Last month we discussed some very basic generalities about the subject of Confederate Uniforms. In this article, I hope to outline the type of materials that were used in their construction as well as the techniques used to manufacture them. I hope that this will serve two purposes. First: that individuals who may now own or have chance to see an original CS garment will know what to look for to identify it. Second: that individuals who would like to have a modern made example constructed for their own use, will hopefully be able to use this information to positively impact the outcome of such a venture.
One of the first things that students of CS uniforms should be informed of the is the type of materials that they are made of. As we know and should do without saying, no uniforms or even components of uniforms would have been made from synthetic materials. This statement is slightly confusing when you consider the fact that some uniform components were made of rubber. CS General Jackson was wearing a rubberized cotton coat when he was fatally wounded. We will go into more detail later in this article about materials which sort of sit on the fence of natural/made made materials.
While chemistry coupled with prevailing technologies for the 19th century did have an impact on the manufacture of man made materials, those considered suitable for the manufacture of military uniforms were completely natural. Fibers used in the weaving of cloths used for this purpose would be, cotton, linen, sheep and goats wool, alpaca (a kind of wool harvested from an animal found in South America), silk, wood and other plant fibers sometimes referred to as nettle, hemp (sometimes confused with linen), horses main hair as well as hair and fur of cattle and other animals, buckram (a jute material which resembles burlap), and in rare cases even leather, tanned with or without fur still attached, would have been used to make a uniform or any component thereof.
Lets start out with the most common and work our way down. The most evident materials used in the construction of a uniform are those, which are making up the outer panels of the garment itself. What one may not recognize is the fact that just as much if not more materials of varying types, will go into the lining, interlining, collar stiffening, batting (padding), button re-enforcement, pockets, trim and facings etc. It is easy to say that on uniform might have five to ten different materials incorporated in its construction. So now, what is the most common material used for the outer panels? Sheeps wool! For the most part all uniforms made and quite a bit of the civilian garments made during the time, which may or may not have been used in the field service of the Confederacy, will be made of sheeps wool. There are a number of reasons for this. For practical purposes and especially relating to military usage, wool wears better under stress, it is flame retardant, it will shrink to fit or stretch to fit (a little, one way or another), it was readily accessible and from a renewable source, it was comfortable to wear in various climates and could be woven lighter or heavier depending on the time of year it was being issued. It was also easily died with a variety of substances and would hold its color better than say silk or cotton, which are hard to dye in the first place and fade rather quickly. So from the standpoint of any quarter master dictating the details of what uniforms should be made of, the overwhelming choice will be wool or in the case of the South, wool blends.
What kind of woolens? Worsted wool, may have been woven into a number of different types of cloth. Broadcloth (a fine, high grade material which will usually be polished to a sheen), melton (A heavier cloth of similar weave but made of lesser quality wool then brushed to hide the grain of the weave) and kersey a very heavy material made from a loose twill weave which is less expensive to make and looks like melton) , will be the most common type used to make officers uniforms and also even the enlisted uniforms of early volunteers and militia men. Satinette (a material made by weaving a woolen yarn into a light cotton warp with not cotton showing from the outside) and jean cloth which is similar to Satinette but made of lesser quality wool and heavier cotton and the cotton is visible from the outside), are materials which were used quite extensively in the South since they incorporate 15 to 25% cotton which was easier to get in the South and since they were made with wool as the main component, still had many of the attributes of wool. These later mentioned cloths will be seen in nearly all uniforms made in the South after 1863 and were used to make caps, trousers, vests, jackets, frock coats, great coats, and even blankets and in at least one instance, shoe uppers! None of the above mentioned materials are unique to the south. All were in use in the manufacture of clothing and uniforms in the North as well and for that matter, throughout the world. In fact, broadcloth and melton are generally considered as Irish/Scotch innovations, kersey is English, Satinette is French and jean cloth is Italian. Southern weavers did contribute a good bit to the look and feel of the material especially when you consider the way they were dyed, which we will talk about later. A final woolen material, which we can put on the list, is a cloth, which came to me known as Shoddy. Shoddy is nothing more than wool felt. Felt does have a place in the manufacture of quality uniforms and was used extensively as batting and interlining. However, there was a practice used by unscrupulous vendors and contactors of using the material as the outer panels of uniforms. This cheap shoddy will not hold up to much wear since it is not woven but rather glued together and in many cases it would fall apart when it got wet. Not a few men who were issued uniforms made of this cloth found themselves naked when they most needed quality garments. Today the word Shoddy is universally accepted as a term, which means poor quality.
We can talk about other material components used to make a uniform garment. Most CS garments and particularly those, which were made for enlisted personnel, would have been interlined with cotton canvas or ducking. This interlining is never visible, even when one looks inside the garment and not to be confused with the lining. The interlining is usually just the interfacing set in between the outer panels and the lining. This gives the garment added strength and rigidity as well as a base to conform to which aides to reduce wrinkles. Most jackets that I have looked at will have interlining only in the front or bodice, while frock coats may have the entire upper portion of the garment interlined. This will sometimes be determined by the quality of the outer panels. Lighter grade wools will need more interlining. Interlining is also made from linen and even horses mane hair as well as goat hair and other types of plant materials such as nettle, but this is rare.
Also, well within the confines of the garment are some other materials. Batting or padding has traditionally been sued to make quilts. It was also used to make the chest and shoulder padding of uniforms. It was primarily used in the manufacture of officers uniforms but many early enlisted uniforms will use it as well, especially early frock coats. It is usually only sewn in the very front of the garment and quilted on to the back of the actual lining or sometimes just tacked in. Some coats will have a light batting on the tops of the shoulders and more commonly a small roll of it tucked under the gathering or pleats of the sleeves. It was considered stylish to have sleeves, which perked up a bit just where they joined the shoulder. This batting, which resembles very loosely constructed felt, but thicker and fluffier, can be made off cotton which is most common, or wool and even horse hair, as well as jute and sometimes light hog bristle.
Collars are generally stiffened with cotton canvas, which is similar to, if not exactly like that used in interlining. Most enlisted uniforms are made with the collar stiffener cut from the scraps of interlining. Officers and finer made enlisted garment will use buckram in the collars. Buckram is a tightly woven jute material, which resembles burlap but will usually be painted on one side to give it added stiffness. This material is also used in the left front panel of the bodice of garment as a re-enforcement for button holes.
The actual inside linings of coats and jackets are also made from a number of materials. Wool, while common for outside panels and batting, etc, is not very common for inside linings but do wind up on the inner part of a garment in the facing. A facing is generally the same material as the outside and just a small strip through with the button holes are cut and the same of the side where the buttons are mounted. These facing may also be made of a contrasting material and usually it will be that of a branch or service color or a color like buff white, denoting staff. This will usually be more common on officers uniforms but again, early enlisted garments and especially those which were tailor made may also have these facings. The linings of enlisted coats will generally be bade of off white cotton osnaburg. Osnaburg is a cloth of German or Austrian origin, which looks like muslin but made of heavier yarn. It was inexpensive, comfortable and was strong enough to incorporate inside pockets and so on without tearing or wearing out. Other lining materials could be used in enlisted or officers uniforms as well. A number of existing examples will have linings made of gingham, any number of printed cambrics and other woven patterns like checks and stripes so on. Also silk and cassimere are found are found in officers and early enlisted uniforms. Alpaca serge and polished cotton are also found. Since all uniforms are hand made and made from materials, which were on hand at any given time the materials used could differ from one day to the next. So, a common enlisted jacket, which was made from brown/gray jean cloth and have a cotton osnaburg liner in one half of the coat and a bed ticking striped liner on the other half, is possible. As a collector of uniforms of other eras, I have seen this in uniforms made in Germany and Japan as late as WWII. Another issue is, that especially with respect to a frock coat, one type of liner could be used in the upper part of the uniform. (Generally a lining made of a high quality lining material) and a less expensive material used to line the skirts and pockets.
This article only touches on the possibilities of the types of materials that were used in the manufacture of CS uniforms. The real truth is hard to discern. For one thing, many of the materials are sewn into the lining of the garments and unless they are damaged cannot be evaluated. Moreover, many garments made during the time were unique and have been destroyed and thus derive us of the chance to evaluate them.
We will discuss more on the materials used in other garments such as trousers and headgear in the next article as well as techniques of dying, weaving, sewed pressing.
From the Adjutant's Desk:
Year 2001 Membership Dues remittance is doing well, we are more than two thirds of the way home. If you have not as yet mailed your check, please do so before the holiday rush.
The ongoing donation program for the powerful LeMat, .44-caliber percussion revolver is moving along at a medium pace. For more tickets please contact 1st Lt. Cdr. Marion Lambert at (813) 839-5153.
Please remember the John T. Lesley Camp is always open for fund raising suggestion to help defray the printing and postage costs.
Welcome to the most current member of the John T. Lesley Camp, Mr. Michael W. Mitcham. His Confederate ancestor was Capt. Francis M. Machen, Co. E, 52 Reg. Ala. Inf.
So many thanks to Daphne Sullivan, Secretary of the Army of Tennessee, Sons of Confederate Veterans, Columbia, TN for her Christmas card to our camp and all the work she handles for us.
The John T. Lesley Camp 1282 membership roster for November 2000 has risen to 212. Many thanks to the members, who have recruited their friends and relatives, keep up the good work. See you at Buddy Freddys on Tuesday, December 21st.
If you have any questions concerning camp business or to process membership paperwork, please do not hesitate in contacting me.
Adjutant Dwight Tetrick